Dealing With Dyslipidemia
- Isolated hypercholesterolemia: When only cholesterol levels are increased
- Isolated hypertriglyceridemia: When only TG concentrations are increased
- Combined hyperlipidemias: When both cholesterol levels and TG concentrations are increased
- Primary causes: Single or multiple gene mutations that result in either overproduction or defective clearance of TGs and LDL cholesterol or in underproduction or excessive clearance of HDL cholesterol. The primary disorder occurs mostly in children and may not affect most cases of adult dyslipidemia.
- Secondary causes: This is due to sedentary lifestyle conditions with excessive dietary intake of cholesterol, trans fats and saturated fats. Secondary causes contribute to many cases of dyslipidemia in adults. Trans fats are the fatty acids that are either polyunsaturated or monounsaturated, in which there are added hydrogen atoms. Trans fats are usually used in a lot of processed foods. Other secondary causes are:
- Alcohol abuse
- Diabetes mellitus
- Chronic kidney disease
- Other cholestatic liver diseases and primary biliary cirrhosis
- Drugs like thiazides, retinoids, oestrogens and glucocorticoids, among othersSymptoms and signs:
- High cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and strokes. It also appears to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
- High cholesterol leads to a build-up of plaque that narrows the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis.
- High levels of TGs (> 1000 mg/dL) can cause acute pancreatitis.
- High levels of LDL can cause arcus corneae and tendinous xanthomas at the elbow and knee.
- Severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 2000 mg/dL) can give retinal arteries and veins a creamy-white appearance (lipemia retinalis).
- Severe elevations of TGs can have eruptive xanthomas (an irregular yellow patch or nodule on the skin, caused by deposition of lipids) over the trunk, back, elbows, buttocks, knees, hands and feet.
Serum Lipids Normal Ranges
Total cholesterol 200 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol 100-129 mg/dL
HDL cholesterol 40 to 60 mg/dL
Triglycerides <150 mg/dLTreatment Dietary modifications:
- Eat small and frequent meals.
- Consume more complex carbohydrates like whole wheat, brown rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, rawa, bran, whole pulses, dals, fruits, vegetables, etc.
- Avoid refined flour (maida) and its products.
- Your diet should be rich in fruits and vegetables because they are rich in fibre, essential minerals, vitamins and antioxidants.
- Consume fish at least twice a week because it is rich in omega 3.
- Cook with heart-friendly oils like peanut oil, rice bran oil, olive oil and canola oil.
- Eat unsaturated fats which lower the LDL cholesterol such as almonds, avocado and walnuts.
- Avoid saturated fats like ghee, butter, dalda and vanaspati because they increase LDL cholesterol.
- Avoid trans fats which are present in most processed foods, which increase bad cholesterol and lower the good cholesterol.
- Meat and full-fat milk have protein but they are also major sources of cholesterol. So you should consume skimmed milk and milk products and lean meat.
- You should introduce soya protein into your diet.
- Avoid simple sugars.
- Avoid salty foods.
- Drink adequate quantity of water.
- Reduce weight: Losing weight can help you reduce your levels of triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol. A good balance of calorie intake and physical activity is required to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight.
- Quit smoking: Your good cholesterol is likely to improve once you stop smoking.
- Regular exercise: It lowers bad cholesterol. Choose an activity that improves your heart rate such as running, swimming or brisk walking. You should exercise for a minimum of 30 minutes everyday.
Some cholesterol-lowering foodsFruits and vegetables Berries Almonds and walnuts Flax seeds Onion and garlic Green tea Download the Grow Fit app on Google Play or App Store today for a specialised diet plan.
- Tags: "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol alcohol abuse Alzheimer's disease atherosclerosis cholestatic liver diseases chronic kidney disease coronary heart disease (CHD) decrease in "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol deficiency Diabetes Mellitus diet and lifestyle Dietary modifications Dyslipidemia elevation of total cholesterol glucocorticoids heart attacks hypothyroidism Lifestyle Disease Lifestyle modification lipoprotein metabolism oestrogens overproduction pancreatitis primary biliary cirrhosis retinoids thiazides triglyceride (TG) concentrations